lección uno

lección uno

The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, which is the Latin script with one additional letter: eñe “ñ”, for a total of 27 letters. 5 of them are vowels. (a,o,u-i,e)

a

b
like ‘b’ in “bed”: boca


c
when followed by ‘e’ or ‘i’, like ‘c’ in “cell” (Latin America) or ‘th’ in “thin” (Spain): cine; otherwise like ‘k’ in “kid”: calle, doctor


ch
like ‘ch’ in “touch”: muchacho


d
like ‘d’ in “dog”: dedo


f
like ‘f’ in “fine”: faro


g
 like “g” in “go” (gato). 


h
silent: hora


j
like ‘h’ in english: jamón


k
like ‘c’ in “cat”: kilo


l
like ‘l’ in “love”: lápiz


ll
like ‘y’ in “you” or, occasionally (in some parts of Latin America), like an english “j”: lluvia (“lluvia” could be both “you-vya” or “jew-vIA”


m
like ‘m’ in “mother”: mano


n
like ‘n’ in “nice”, and like ‘n’ in “anchor”: noche, ancla


ñ
like ‘ny’ in “canyon”: cañón, piñata


p
like ‘p’ in “pig”: perro


q
like ‘q’ in “quiche” (always with a silent “u”): queso, pronounced KAY-so.


r

single flap r (ere)


s
like ‘ss’ in “hiss”: sopa


t
like ‘t’ in “top”: tapa


v
like ‘b’ in “bed”: vaca, pronounced BAH-kah. To distinguish v from b when spelling, one says v chica or b grande to know the difference.


w
like ‘w’ in “weight” in English words, whisky (pronounced WEESS-kee). Like ‘b’ in “bed” in Germanic words.


x
like ‘x’ in “sex” (sexo). Like ‘ss’ in “hiss” at beginning of a word (xilófono). Like ‘ch’ in “loch” in the words México, mexicano, Oaxaca, and oaxaqueño.


y
like ‘y’ in “yes”: payaso. Like ‘y’ in “boy”: hoy.


z
like ‘s’ in “supper” (Latin America), like ‘th’ in “thin” (Spain): zorro.

a
like ‘a’ in “art”


e
like the ‘ay’ in “day”


i
like ‘ee’ in “see” or “deed”


o
like ‘ow’ in “low”


u
like ‘oo’ in “hoop”

Hello (informal).
Hola. (OH-lah). For the formal equivalent of hola see good morning, good afternoon, good evening below.


How are you? (informal)
¿Cómo estás? (KOH-moh ehss-TAHSS?)


How are you (formal)
¿Cómo está usted? (KOH-mo ehss-TAH oo-stehd?)


Fine, thank you.
Muy bien, gracias. (mooey BYEHN, GRAH-syahss)


What is your name? (informal)
¿Cómo te llamas? (KOH-moh tay YAH-mahss?)


What is your name? (formal)
¿Cómo se llama usted? (KOH-mo say YAH-mah ooss-TAID?)


My name is ______ .
Me llamo ______ . (may YAH-moh _____ .)


Nice to meet you.
Encantado/a. (EHN-kahn-TAH-doh)


Please.
Por favor. (POHR fah-BOHR)


Thank you.
Gracias. (GRAH-SYAHSS)


You’re welcome.
De nada. (day NAH-dah)


Yes.
Sí. (SEE)


No.
No. (NOH)


Excuse me. (getting attention)
Disculpe. (dees-KOOL-pay)


Excuse me. (begging pardon)
Perdón. (pair-DOHN)


I’m sorry.
Lo siento. (loh SYEHN-toh)


Goodbye.
Adiós. (ah-DYOHSS)


Goodbye. (informal)
Hasta luego. (AH-stah LWAY-goh)


I can’t speak Spanish [well].
No hablo español [bien]. (noh AH-blow EHS-pahn-YOL [BYEHN])


Do you speak English?
¿Hablas inglés? (AH-blahss een-GLAYSS?) (informal); ¿Habla usted inglés? (AH-blah oos-TAID een-GLAYSS?)


Is there someone here who speaks English?
¿Hay alguien que hable inglés? (eye ahl-GYEN kay AH-blay een-GLAYSS?)


Help!
Ayuda! (ah-YOU-dah!); Socorro! (soh-COH-row!)


Good morning.
Buenos días. (BWAY-nohss DEE-ahss)


Good afternoon.
Buenas tardes. (BWAY-nahss TAR-dayss)


Good evening (when it’s dark)
Buenas noches. (BWAY-nahss NOH-chayss)


Good night.
Buenas noches. (BWAY-nas NOH-chayss)


I don’t understand.
No entiendo. (noh ehn-TYEHN-doh)


Where is the toilet?
¿Dónde está el baño? (DOHN-day ehs

numbers:

1
uno/a (OO-noh)


2
dos (doss)


3
tres (tress)


4
cuatro (KWA-tro)


5
cinco (SEEN-ko)


6
seis (SAISS)


7
siete (SYE-te)


8
ocho (O-cho)


9
nueve (NWAI-be)


10
diez (DYESS)


11
once (OHN-say)


12
doce (DOH-say)


13
trece (TRAY-say)


14
catorce (kah-TOHR-say)


15
quince (KEEN-say)


16
dieciseis (DYEESS-ee-SAYSS)


17
diecisiete (DYEESS-ee-SYAY-tay)


18
dieciocho (DYEESS-ee-OH-choh)


19
diecinueve (DYEESS-ee-NWAY-bay)


20
veinte (BAYN-tay)


21
veintiuno (BAYN-TYOO-noh)


22
veintidos (BAYN-tee-DOHSS)


23
veintitres (BAYN-tee-TRAYSS)


30
treinta (TRAYN-tah)


40
cuarenta (kwah-RAYN-tah)


50
cincuenta (seen-KWAYN-tah)


60
sesenta (say-SAYN-tah)


70
setenta (say-TAYN-tah)


80
ochenta (oh-CHAYN-tah)


90
noventa (noh-BAYN-tah)


100
cien (syehn)


200
doscientos (dos-SYEHN-tos)


300
trescientos (tres-SYEHN-tos)


500
quinientos (kee-NYEHN-tos)


1000
mil (MEEL)


2000
dos mil (dohss MEEL)


1,000,000
un millón (oon mee-YOHN)


colors:

black
negro (NAY-groh)


white
blanco (BLAHN-koh)


gray
gris (GREESS)


red
rojo (ROH-hoh)


blue
azul (ah-SOOL)


yellow
amarillo (AH-mah-REE-yoh)


green
verde (BAYR-day)


orange
naranja (nar-AHN-hah), anaranjado (ah–nah-ran-HA-do)


purple
púrpura (POOR-poor-ah) , morado (moor-AH-do), violeta (vee-oh-LEH-tah)


brown
marrón (mah-RON)

Time:

now
ahora (ah-OH-rah)


later
después (day-SPWAYSS)


before
antes (ahn-TAYSS)


morning
mañana (mah-NYAH-nah)


afternoon
tarde (TAHR-day)


night
noche (NOH-chay)

Clock

one o’clock AM
la una de la madrugada; la una de la mañana (lah OOH-nah day lah mah-drooh-GAH dah; lah OOH-nah day lah mahn-YAH-nah)


two o’clock AM
las dos de la madrugada; las dos de la mañana (lahss DOHSS day lah mah-drooh-GAH dah; lahss DOHSS day lah mahn-YAH-nah)


ten o’clock AM
las diez de la mañana (lahss dee-AYSS day lah mahn-YAH-nah)


noon
mediodía; las doce de la mañana (lahss DOH-say day lah mahn-YAH-nah)


one o’clock PM
la una de la tarde (lah OOH-nah day lah TAHR-day)


two o’clock PM
las dos de la tarde (lahss DOHSS day lah TAHR-day)


ten o’clock PM
las diez de la noche (lahss dee-AYSS day lah NOH-chay)


midnight
medianoche; las doce de la noche (may-dee-yah-NOH-chay; lahss DOH-say day lah NOH-chay)

Duration

_____ minute(s)
_____ minuto(s) (mee-NOOH-toh(ss))


_____ hour(s)
_____ hora(s) (OHR-ah(ss))


_____ day(s)
_____ día(s) (DEE-aah(ss))


_____ week(s)
_____ semana(s) (say-MAH-nah(ss))


_____ month(s)
_____ mes(es) (MAYSS-(ayss))


_____ year(s)
_____ año(s) (AH-nyoh(ss))

Days

today
hoy (OY)


yesterday
ayer(I-air)


tomorrow
mañana (surely you know how to pronounce this word: mahn-YAH-nah)


this week
esta semana (EHS-tah say-MAH-nah)


last week
la semana pasada (lah say-MAH-nah pah-SAH-dah)


next week
la semana que viene (lah say-MAH-nah kay vee-AYN-ay)


Monday
lunes (LOOH-nayss)


Tuesday
martes (MAHR-tayss)


Wednesday
miércoles (mee-AIR-coh-layss)


Thursday
jueves (WHAY-vayss)


Friday
viernes (vee-AIR-nayss)


Saturday
sábado (SAH-bah-doh)


Sunday
domingo (doh-MEEN-goh)The week begins on Monday.

Months

January
enero (eh-NEH-ro)


February
febrero (feh-BREH-ro)


March
marzo (MAR-zo)


April
abril (ah-BRIL)


May
mayo (MAY-o)


June
junio (HOO-nio)


July
julio (HOO-lio)


August
agosto (ah-GO-sto)


September
septiembre/setiembre (se-TEE-YEM-bray)


October
octubre (ok-TOO-brey)


November
noviembre (no-VEE-YEM-bray)


December
diciembre (dee-CEE-YEM-bray)

eating:

A table for one person/two people, please.
Una mesa para una persona/dos personas, por favor. (OO-nah MAY-sah pah-rah OO-nah pehr-SOH-nah / dohss pehr-SOH-nahs pohr fah- BOHR)


Can I look at the menu, please?
¿Puedo ver el menú, por favor? (PWAY-doh behr ehl meh-NOO pohr fah-BOHR?)


Can I look in the kitchen?
¿Puedo entrar a la cocina?


Is there a house specialty?
¿Hay alguna especialidad de la casa?


Is there a local specialty?
¿Hay alguna especialidad regional/de la zona?


I’m a vegetarian.
Soy vegetariano/a.


I don’t eat pork.
No como cerdo.


I only eat kosher food.
Sólo como comida kosher. (In a restaurant they will stare at you, since “kosher” is as Spanish as “empanada” is English.)


Can you make it “lite”, please? (less oil/butter/lard)
¿Puede poner poca aceite/poca mantequilla/poca grasa?


fixed-price meal
menú del día


a la carte
a la carta


breakfast
desayuno


lunch
comida (Spain, Mexico), almuerzo (South America)


supper
cena (everywhere), comida (South America)


I want _____.
Quiero _____.


I want a dish containing _____.
Quisiera un plato que lleve _____.


chicken
pollo. (POH-yoh)


beef
ternera (tehr-NEH-rah), vacuno (bah-KOO-noh), res (rehss)


fish
pescado (pehs-KAH-doh)


ham
jamón (hah-MOHN)


sausage
salchicha (sahl-CHEE-chah), vienesa (byeh-NAY-sah)


cheese
queso


eggs
huevos


salad
ensalada


(fresh) vegetables
verdura (fresca)


(fresh) fruit
fruta (fresca)


bread
pan


toast
tostada


noodles
fideos


rice
arroz


beans
alubias , porotos, frijoles, judías, habichuelas


May I have a glass of _____?
¿Me puede poner/traer un vaso de _____?


May I have a cup of _____?
¿Me puede poner/traer una taza de _____?


May I have a bottle of _____?
¿Me puede poner/traer una botella de _____?


coffee
café


tea (drink)


juice
zumo , jugo


water
agua


(bubbly) water
agua con gas (if you say agua, is without gas); Agua mineral is bottled water with gas, unless you ask for agua mineral sin gas.


beer
cerveza


red/white wine
vino tinto/blanco


May I have some _____?
¿Me puede dar un poco de _____?


salt
sal


black pepper
pimienta


butter
mantequilla , manteca (in Argentina)


Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
¡camarero!, ¡mesero! (preferred)


I’m finished.
He acabado, terminé (The first phrase can refer to the finishing of a completely unrelated physiological activity)


It was delicious.
Estaba delicioso.


Please clear the plates.
Puede llevarse los platos.


The check, please.
La cuenta, por favor.

more:

I haven’t done anything wrong.
No he hecho nada malo. (NOH ay AY-choh NAH-dah MAH-loh)


It was a misunderstanding.
Es un malentendido. (AYSS oon MAHL-ayn-tayn-DEE-doh)


Where are you taking me?
¿Dónde me lleva? (DOHN-day may YAY-bah?)


Am I under arrest?
¿Estoy arrestado/a? (ay-STOY AHRR-ay-STAH-doh/dah?)


I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
Soy ciudadano estadounidense/australiano/inglés/canadiense.


I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
Quiero hablar con la embajada/el consulado estadounidense/australiano/inglés/canadiense.


I want to talk to a lawyer.
Quiero hablar con un abogado. (KYAY-roh ah-BLAHR cohn oon AH-boh-GAH-doh)


Can I just pay a fine now?
¿Puedo pagar la multa ahora? (PWAY-doh pah-GAR lah MOOL-tah ah-OH-rah?

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